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Managing Avian Gastric Yeast: Effective Treatment and Prevention Tips for Budgie Owners

I started this whole blog just to share this information with the world.

Managing Avian Gastric Yeast: Effective Treatment and Prevention Tips for Budgie Owners

How I Keep My Budgie's Avian Gastric Yeast In Check (The Cure For Avian Gastric Yeast/Megabacteria)

Avian gastric yeast or otherwise known as Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (also referred to as megabacteria) is a significant gastrointestinal health concern that affects birds, particularly pet birds and poultry. This condition, which can lead to severe digestive disturbances and overall decline in avian health, has garnered attention from avian veterinarians and researchers worldwide. In this detailed introduction, we will explore the intricacies of avian gastric yeast shedding light on its symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, and potential treatments. 

Fig 26.26 Clinical Avian Medicine Vol II Page 672.

Avian Gastric Yeast (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster)

1.1 Definition and Background: Avian gastric yeast, scientifically referred to as Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, is a fungal infection that targets the gastrointestinal tract of various bird species. While this condition has been observed in both wild and captive birds, it poses a significant concern for pet bird owners and poultry farmers due to its potential for causing severe health issues. Avian gastric yeast has been identified as a type of yeast that predominantly affects the proventriculus, a section of the bird's stomach responsible for initial digestion.

1.2 Symptoms and Clinical Presentation: Infected birds with avian gastric yeast may exhibit a range of clinical signs, which can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include regurgitation, weight loss, decreased appetite, and lethargy. As the infection progresses, birds may develop discomfort, indicated by fluffing of feathers and adopting a hunched posture. In more severe cases, avian gastric yeast can lead to crop stasis, a condition in which food is not adequately emptied from the crop, causing additional complications.

1.3 Transmission and Susceptibility: The precise mode of transmission of avian gastric yeast remains an area of ongoing research. However, it is suspected that the infection spreads through contaminated food and water sources. Additionally, direct contact with infected birds may play a role in the transmission process. The susceptibility of various bird species to avian gastric yeast can differ, with some species being more vulnerable to infection than others.

1.4 Diagnosis and Veterinary Examination: Diagnosing avian gastric yeast requires a thorough veterinary examination. Avian veterinarians may employ a combination of physical examinations, fecal testing, crop washes, and endoscopy to identify the presence of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. Crop washes, in particular, involve flushing the crop with a sterile solution to collect samples for analysis. The definitive diagnosis is crucial for initiating appropriate and timely treatment.

1.5 Treatment and Management: The treatment of avian gastric yeast typically involves the administration of antifungal medications prescribed by avian veterinarians (in this case Amphotericin B). These medications are aimed at combating yeast infection in the bird's gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, supportive care, such as providing a nutritious diet, eliminating any sugar intake, and minimizing stress, is essential to aid in the bird's recovery and bolster its immune system. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for megabacteria that has consistently demonstrated high efficacy. 

Some common symptoms of AGY in budgerigars include:

  1. Weight Loss: Infected budgerigars may exhibit gradual or sudden weight loss. This can be noticeable as a decrease in body condition or a "skinny" appearance.

  2. Regurgitation: Birds with AGY may regurgitate or vomit, sometimes containing undigested food or an abnormal appearance.

  3. Swollen Crop: The crop, the pouch-like structure in the bird's throat where food is temporarily stored, may appear swollen or distended due to AGY infection.

  4. Diarrhea: Affected budgerigars may have loose or watery droppings.

  5. Increased Drinking: Budgies with AGY might drink more water than usual due to the impact of the infection on their digestive system.

  6. Decreased Activity and Energy: Infected birds may become lethargic, less active, and show a reduced interest in their usual activities.

  7. Fluffed Feathers: The bird's feathers may appear fluffed up, indicating a possible illness or discomfort.

  8. Poor Appetite: Budgerigars with AGY may show a decreased appetite and may be reluctant to eat.

  9. Distended Abdomen: In severe cases, the abdomen may appear swollen due to the infection and its impact on the digestive system.

Hatchin's Story

In 2021 December, I adopted a little blue bird whom I had named Hatchin. The lady I adopted him from kept multiple budgies, the condition in which they were kept in was less than ideal. The large cage was quite unhygienic and unsanitary. His parents originate from rescue centers so I knew that there was a possibility that Hatchin might have a disease. After I got to know him better I realized that something wasn't okay with him, he kept closing his eyes for a few seconds and I could see it on him that he was in discomfort. An inexperienced bird parent would never have noticed that sign. This is why I recommend taking a newly adopted bird to the avian vet for a check-up as soon as possible so that it wouldn't infect your other birds and you find out if it has any disease in a timely manner.  The only symptom I can list is that I could see it in his eyes. I had a hunch that something was wrong with him. He ate regularly, he chirped, his poop was normal, and was quite active but my intuition told me that something was ''off''. I took him to the avian vet and as I sat there in the waiting room I begged the angels that the diagnosis wouldn't turn out to be avian gastric yeast (megabacteria). He weighed 30 grams. 

The diagnosis was megabacteria. Back then, my mind had associated megabacteria with a death sentence. He also tested positive for e.Coli. 

In the course of a few months, he received the following treatment: 

Doxycycline injections (antibiotics for e.Coli, 7 doses)

Amphotericin B (antifungal for AGY, on an empty crop, given for 28 days, 2 times a day, one drop into the beak, I repeated the treatment around 3 times)

Probiotics (to make sure the beneficial bacteria in his intestines would grow back since antibiotics destroy beneficial bacteria in the gut)

Apple cider vinegar (which acidifies his intestines, fungi can't thrive in an acidic environment)

Thyme (diluted tea or fresh herb, antifungal properties)

The following test has been performed:

Gram stain (crop and fecal)

Antibiotic resistance test

I repeated this treatment regime a couple of times. One must be careful when administering antibiotics and antifungals. Pathogens become resistant to drugs, including antibiotics and antivirals, primarily due to the process of natural selection and the excessive or inappropriate use of these drugs. When exposed to drugs, pathogens with pre-existing genetic mutations that grant them resistance have a survival advantage, as they can withstand the drug's effects and continue to reproduce. These drug-resistant strains then become dominant in the population. Additionally, horizontal gene transfer between bacteria allows the rapid spread of resistance genes. Furthermore, the overuse and misuse of drugs, such as patients not completing their prescribed antibiotic courses or the widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture and livestock, create selective pressure, promoting the survival and proliferation of drug-resistant pathogens. Consequently, as time progresses, pathogens evolve and adapt to overcome the drugs meant to eradicate them, posing a significant challenge to global health by limiting treatment options and leading to the emergence of difficult-to-treat infections. E. Coli was eradicated by the antibiotic shots, but AGY still remained a problem because he kept coming down with illness every three months. Amphotericin B did not eradicate megabacteria entirely, it only ameliorated the symptoms for a while (3 months). 

Current Avian Gastric Yeast Treatment Protocols Are Ineffective

Attempts at treating birds affected by AGY have met with limited success. Traditional antibacterial drugs have no effect on AGY. Amphotericin B, a polyene macrolide antifungal drug, when administered orally (100 mg/kg twice daily) was found to be effective at ameliorating fecal shedding of AGY organisms in affected budgerigars. It is considered the standard for treating birds diagnosed with avian gastric mycosis. I accentuate the word 'ameliorate'. 

However, in a follow-up study, several treated birds were observed to return to fecal shedding, suggesting either that reinfection occurred or that therapy was incomplete. Treatment with amphotericin B is also complicated by the need for long-term administration, the cost of the drug and the difficulty of obtaining an oral formulation. Resistance of AGY to amphotericin B has been reported in a flock of budgerigars in Australia.

Oral nystatin and oral lactobacillus are treatments reportedly showing some degree of success; other studies, however, have found these therapies ineffective.

Megabacteria Might Or Might Not Be A Normal Part Of The Avian Microbiome

Birds harbor complex gut bacterial communities that may sustain their ecologies and facilitate their biological roles, distribution, and diversity. Research on gut microbiomes in wild birds is surging and it is clear that they are diverse and important – but strongly influenced by a series of environmental factors.

Some researchers consider megabacteria a part of the natural avian flora while others classify it as an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it can take advantage of weakened immune systems or other underlying health issues in birds, leading to infections. In captive bird populations, such as pet birds and poultry, megabacteria can cause significant health problems, especially in situations with poor husbandry, stress, or crowded conditions.

In the natural environment, wild birds generally have a diverse and complex microbiome in their gastrointestinal tract, which includes various beneficial bacteria that aid in digestion and other functions. Megabacteria is not considered a regular or beneficial component of this natural microbiome.

How I Maintain Hatchin's Megabacteria 

Around November 2022 November, I was getting desperate to heal Hatchin because he kept coming down repeatedly with illness. There was a pattern: he vomited every three months and got fluffed up for a few days. The Amphotericin B wasn't doing its job properly.

I believe in alternative medicine and have my own opinion about conventional medicine. Conventional medicine focuses on treating symptoms and diseases using drugs, surgeries, and other medical interventions. It mainly focuses on alleviating symptoms while it brings about several other side effects. The antifungal could have damaged Hatchin's kidneys and liver had I kept administering it to him for a longer time period. 

In October, I happened to learn about CDS (chlorine dioxide solution) via Andreas Kalcker's website (Andreas Kalcker - What is CDS?) as an attempt to remove a certain toxin from my body. 

Facts About Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a chemical compound composed of one chlorine atom and two oxygen atoms. It is a yellowish-green gas at room temperature and is highly reactive and unstable. Within the body, it works by seeking out negatively charged atoms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, pathogens) and eliminates them. Two hours after having entered the body it turns into table salt (NaCl). 

Chlorine dioxide's volatility and its tendency to easily accept electrons allow it to effectively attack pathogens. Pathogens are electron donors (they give away electrons easily), so when a chlorine dioxide ion reaches a pathogen, it takes up to 5 of the pathogen's electrons, thus resulting in a microscopic semi-explosion that destroys the pathogen. Chlorine dioxide only activates upon contact with acidic, positively charged ions in the body, meaning that healthy cells with a pH of 7 or above are safe from its effects. Cancer cells are affected by chlorine dioxide because of the acidity. 

• Chlorine dioxide has been used to purify water for more than 70 years.

• Chlorine dioxide has been taken as a health drink for more than 85 years by hundreds of thousands of people in the US.

• Chlorine dioxide is used in more than 1000 public water works to kill the diseases of mankind. 

• Sodium chlorite, from which chlorine dioxide is derived, has been sold by more than a dozen companies to improve health for decades.

• In 2012 the Red Cross did a test in Uganda using activated sodium chlorite where 154 malaria victims were cured out of 154 cases, that’s 100%.

• In 1996 Jim Humble discovered that sodium chlorite eradicates malaria in as little as four hours. Since that time many thousands have already been recovered to prove it, but the mainstream media has prevented it from becoming known.

• Since Jim Humble’s discovery, various other diseases of hundreds of thousands have been overcome in more than 150 countries (that we know of) of the world by using chlorine dioxide.

• The FDA, EPA, and other government agencies have written many articles praising the use of chlorine dioxide on food and other uses (showing that it is not poisonous). Unfortunately some of this information is disappearing from the internet.

• Fake news has been active in denying that chlorine dioxide (as MMS) helps fight disease and has confused it with common household bleach. They deny the truth by telling lies. Common household bleach (NaClO) destroys pathogens through chlorination. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) kills pathogens through the process of oxidation, there is a big difference.

• Chlorine dioxide (MMS) brings longevity. Since chlorine dioxide kills most diseases, it kills diseases that kill people. 

• The FDA and other government agencies have written articles branding chlorine dioxide as extremely poisonous, except they have praised its use in the food industry.

• Pharmaceutical drugs almost exclusively treat symptoms of diseases and not the cause of the diseases. This is a way of keeping people sick and dependent on drugs.

The problem with CD is that the FDA can't patent it. You can make it at home for as little as 50 USD. (How to Make Chlorine Dioxide Solution (CDS) - CDS ( CD is not the same as bleach (NaClO)! 

I have been using CD for more than a year both for myself and for my birds. We are still alive, Hatchin doesn't get sick and doesn't lose weight every 3 months like before. My other bird Azuki has never caught or come down with megabacteria. 

In November I received the bottle of CD in the mail for the first time, on the same day Hatchin had been throwing up and I was panicking. I connected the dots while, in my panic, I was reading a blog about someone healing their dog with CD. Megabacteria is a pathogen, CD kills pathogens. Bingo. 

I put 0,5 ml CDS (0,3% PPM) in 70 ml water (their water container) as a starter dose. I kept doing this for a month. Ideally, they should drink from it on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning. The water must be a bit cold or room temperature, never warm. I gave them fresh water 3 times a day, each time putting CDS drops in it (CDS will dissolve quite soon in water). Then I would repeat this protocol occasionally. He never got diarrhea from it. My birds are still alive and well. He went from 30 grams to 36 grams. When I see that he is getting a bit fluffy I put CDS for a few days in their water again. He hasn't been sick for quite a while now. I write this blog to share this piece of knowledge with the world. I know how it is to stay up until late, searching on the internet endlessly trying to save your beloved bird's life. I do not make my own CDS, I buy it in a 0,3% ppm bottle. CDS must be diluted in water, don't give your bird CDS directly from the bottle!!!

Materials used: CDS 0,3 % ppm  

Cdl 0 3 2023 - Ikauder

It's called chlordioxid-lösung in German

I don't know if the avian gastric yeast/megabacteria has been completely eradicated or not, but I know that Hatchin hasn't been sick for the past 8 months. Neither has my other bird caught the yeast from him. 

Don'ts if your bird has been diagnosed with megabacteria:

Don't feed your bird ANY fruits or any sugary foods because sugar feeds yeast.

Sources to learn more:

Veterinarian Guide to CD (GERMAN):

Herstellung_und_Anwendung_von_Chlordioxid_in_der_Tierheilkunde.pdf (

The Universal Antidote Lost Documentary Series:

Quantum Leap Documentary - The Universal Antidote Lost Documentaries Series (

Andreas Kalcker:

Andreas Kalcker - COVER

Jim Humble:

Home - Jim Humble | MMS | Master Mineral Solution | Miracle Mineral Solution | JIMHUMBLE.CO

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